Implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on school-based agricultural education teachers in South Carolina

Keywords: human capital, then-now design, teacher preparedness


Understanding a complete school-based agricultural education (SBAE) program and the many tasks at hand for the teacher are critical in determining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on SBAE teachers. The human capital theory was used to undergird this study, focusing on the components impacting the effectiveness of SBAE teachers. The purpose of the study was to determine the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on SBAE teachers in South Carolina (SC). This non-experimental survey research study reached 46.5% of SBAE teachers in SC through the electronic distribution of a 27-item survey instrument implementing a then-now design. SBAE teachers in SC felt less prepared to deliver relevant classroom instruction, supervise supervised agricultural experiences - projects, advise FFA members, and train Career and Leadership Development Events teams now than they did prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, while they feel more prepared to teach student virtually than ever before. The pandemic impacted the preparedness and self-efficacy of SBAE teachers, impacting both their career and personal life satisfaction. Moving forward SBAE teachers should evaluate their roles and responsibilities associated with their career and determine how to best bring balance into their lives. Additional research on the roles and responsibilities of SBAE teachers post-pandemic should also be considered.


Banerjee, N., Stearns, E., Moller, S., & Mickelson, R. A. (2017). Teacher job satisfaction and student achievement: The roles of teacher professional community and teacher collaboration in schools. American Journal of Education, 123(2), 203–241.

Becker, G. S. (1964). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis with special reference to education. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Bushweller, K. (2020). How COVID-19 is shaping tech use. What that means when schools reopen. Education Week.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2020). Situation summary.

Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49, 91–96.

Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D., & Christian, L. M. (2014). Internet, phone, mail, and mixed-mode surveys: The tailored design method (4th ed.). Wiley.

John, O. P., & Robins, R. W. (1994). Accuracy and bias in self-perception: Individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(1), 206–219.

Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1999). The human resource architecture: Toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 31–48.

Lindner, J., Clemons, C., Thoron, A., & Lindner, N. (2020). Remote instruction and distance education. A response to COVID-19. Advancements in Agricultural Development, 1(2), 53–64.

Lindner, J. R., Murphy, T. H., & Briers, G. E. (2001). Handling nonresponse in social science research. Journal of Agricultural Education, 42(4), 43–53.

Little, J. W. (2003). Inside teacher community: Representations of classroom practice. Teachers College Record, 105(6), 913–945.

McKim, A. J., & Sorenson, T. J. (2020). Agricultural educators and the pandemic: An evaluation of work and life variables. Journal of Agricultural Education, 61(4), 214–228.

National FFA Organization. (2015). Agricultural education.

Privitera, G. J. (2020). Research methods for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Sage.

Schultz, T. W. (1971). Investment in human capital: The role of education and of research. The Free Press.

Smith, E. (2010). Sector–specific human capital and the distribution of earnings. Journal of Human Capital, 4(1), 35–61.

Smylie, M. A. (1996). From bureaucratic control to building human capital: The importance of teacher learning in education reform. Educational Researcher, 25(9), 9–11.

Terry, R., Jr., & Briers, G. E. (2010). Roles of the secondary agriculture teacher. In R. Torres, T. Kitchel, & A. Ball (Eds.), Preparing and advancing teachers in agricultural education (pp. 86–98). Columbus: Curriculum Materials Service, The Ohio State University.

Torres, R. M., Ulmer, J. D., & Aschenbrener, M. S. (2008). Workload distribution among agriculture teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education, 49(2), 75–87.

Wilson, S. M., & Ball, D. L. (1996). Helping teachers meet the standards: New challenges for teacher educators. The Elementary School Journal, 97(2), 121¬–138.

World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation report–51.’sfvrsn=1ba62e57_10

How to Cite
Eck, C. (2021). Implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on school-based agricultural education teachers in South Carolina. Advancements in Agricultural Development, 2(2), 25-35.

Funding data