Agricultural education and migration: A comparison of rural youth in El Salvador and Honduras




agricultural education, rural youth migration, El Salvador, Honduras


Youth is defined as a period of transition from childhood to adulthood that ranges between the ages of 15 and 24, and it is the most mobile social group in the world. Youth migration in El Salvador and Honduras is a well-known problem; however, limited research has studied the causes of migration and the impact of agricultural education programs on the decision to migrate. This study aims to identify and compare the migration intentions of students in agricultural and non-agricultural programs of two rural communities of El Salvador and Honduras. For this quantitative study, a two-group model was used, the target population (N = 209) was composed of high school students with similar socioeconomic characteristics. Overall, the comparison between El Salvador and Honduras showed a significant difference between countries regarding their migration intentions (p < 0.05). Salvadorian students presented a stronger willingness to migrate. Moreover, students’ intention of migration was evaluated based on their educational background. Youth who were not part of a formal agricultural program have a higher intention of migrating (p < 0.05). Finally, the main and interaction effects of intention to migrate, country of origin, and academic program based on the different migration drivers were analyzed.


Download data is not yet available.


Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In Kuhl J. & Beckmann J. (eds) Action Control ( pp. 11-39). SSSP Springer Series in Social Psychology. Springer.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.

Burton, R. J. (2004). Reconceptualising the 'behavioural approach' in agricultural studies: A socio-psychological perspective. Journal of Rural Studies, 20(3), 359–371.

Castelli, F. (2018). Drivers of migration: Why do people move? Journal of Travel Medicine, 25(1).

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Congressional Research Service. (2019). Central American migration: Root causes and U.S. policy. CRS.

Corbett, M. (2007). Learning to leave: The irony of schooling in a coastal community. Fernwood Books.

Demi, M. A., McLaughlin, D. K., & Snyder, A. R. (2009). Rural youth residential preferences: understanding the youth development-community development nexus. Community Development, 40(4), 311–330.

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage publications.

Food and Agriculture Organization. (2016). Addresing rural youth migration at its root causes: A conceptual framwork. FAO.

Foroughi, E., Misajon, R., & Cummins, R. A. (2001). The relationships between migration, social support, and social integration on quality of life. Behaviour Change, 18(3), 156–167.

Global Migration Group. (2014). Migration and youth: Challenges and opportunities. UNICEF.

Kodrzycki, Y. K. (2001). Migration of recent college graduates: Evidence from the national longitudinal survey of youth. New England Economic Review, 1(January/Feburary), 13-34.

Raaijmakers, Q. A. W. (1999). Effectiveness of different missing data treatments in surveys with likert-type data: Introducing the relative mean substitution approach. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59(5), 725–748.

Ramos-Vidal, I., Villamil, I., & Uribe, A. (2019). Underlying dimensions of social cohesion in a rural community affected by wartime violence in Colombia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(2), 195.

Rhoda, R. (1983). Rural development and urban migration: Can we keep them down on the farm? International Migration Review, 17(1), 34–64.

Rodriguez, N., Urrutia-Rojas, X., & Gonzalez, L. R. (2019). Unaccompanied minors from the Northern Central American countries in the migrant stream: Social differentials and institutional contexts. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45(2), 218–234.

Roth, B. J., & Hartnett, C. S. (2018). Creating reasons to stay? Unaccompanied youth migration, community-based programs, and the power of "push" factors in El Salvador. Children and Youth Services Review, 92(September), 48–55.

Rubin, A., & Babbie, E. (2009). Essential research methods for social work. Brooks.

Shi, D., Lee, T., Fairchild, A. J., & Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2020). Fitting ordinal factor analysis models with missing data: A comparison between pairwise deletion and multiple Imputation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 80(1), 41–66.

Theodori, A. E., & Theodori, G. L. (2014). Perceptions of community and place and the migration intentions of at-risk youth in rural areas. Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 29(1), 103-121.

United Nations. (2018). Youth and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Youth.

United Nations. (2019, September 23). Youth. Who are Youth?:

Warren, R., & Kerwin, D. (2017). A statistical and demographic profile of the US temporary protected status populations from El Salvador, Honduras, and Haiti. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 5(3), 577–592.

Whitmarsh, L., & O'Neill, S. (2010). Green identity, green living? The role of pro-environmental self-identity in determining consistency across diverse pro-environmental behaviours. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(3), 305–314.

Yazdan-Panah, M., & Zobeidi, T. (2017). Why do they want to migrate from rural areas? A psychological perspective from Iran. International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development, 7(3), 283–292.

Yazdan-Panah, M., Zobeidi, T., & Bakhtiari, Z. (2017). Determinate of factors influencing intention to stay and reside in rural among rural students. Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 6(3).




How to Cite

Lamiño Jaramillo, P., Boren Alpizar, A., Millares Forno, C., & Quijada Landaverde, R. (2021). Agricultural education and migration: A comparison of rural youth in El Salvador and Honduras. Advancements in Agricultural Development, 2(1), 70–82.




Funding data