Comparing the self-efficacy of Florida school-based agricultural education teachers delivering online and in-person instruction
The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of Florida SBAE teachers for in-person and online instruction. The methodology included a descriptive survey approach to determine the self-efficacy of Florida SBAE teachers. A census of SBAE teachers was conducted in the Fall of 2020 and Spring of 2021. The population included a total of 500 SBAE teachers in the Florida. Major findings included a significantly different self-efficacy score for in-person instructors (M =4.22, SD = 0.48) when compared to instructors who taught online (M = 2.98, SD = 0.67). Navigating online platforms for teaching, coupled with the conditions in which teachers had to move to online instruction during COVID-19 could have reduced the self-efficacy of teachers. Recommendations include training for teachers on how to navigate online platforms, as well as professional development to enhance skillsets of teachers in pedagogical practices for engaging online learners. Teachers should look for support from their peers who are proficient in online teaching. Preservice teacher education programs should consider integrating online delivery instructional practices into existing coursework and moving back to in-person instruction when it is safe to do so.
Bandura, A. (1977a). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Bandura, A. (1977b). Social learning theory. Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527692
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1
Bandura, A., Barabranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impacts of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67(3), 1206–1222. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131888
Cardullo, V., Wang, C., Burton, M., & Dong, J. (2021). K-12 teachers’ remote self-efficacy during the pandemic. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 14(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIT-10-2020-0055
Easterly, R. G., Humphrey, K., & Roberts, T. G. (2021). The impacts of COVID-19 on school-based agricultural education teachers in the U.S. Advancements in Agricultural Development, 2(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.37433/aad.v2i1.79
Easterly, R. G., & Simpson, K. (2020). An examination of the curricular resource use and self efficacy of Utah school-based agricultural education teachers: An exploratory study. Journal of Agricultural Education, 61(4), 30–45. https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2020.04035
Goddard, R. D., Hoy,W. K., & Hoy, A. W. (2000). Collective teacher self-efficacy: its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 479–507. https://doi.org/10.3102%2F00028312037002479
Guskey, T. R. (1998). Teacher efficacy, self-concept, and attitudes toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4(1), 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/0742-051X(88)90025-X
Humphries, C. A., Hebert, E., Daigle, K., & Martin, J. (2012). Development of a physical education teaching efficacy scale. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 16(4), 284–299. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2012.716726
Klassen, R. M., & Chiu, M. M. (2011). The occupational commitment and intention to quit of practicing and pre-service teachers: Influence of self-efficacy, job stress, and teaching context. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(2), 114–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.01.002
Lindner, J., Clemons, C., Thoron, A., & Lindner, N. (2020). Remote instruction and distance education: A response to COVID-19. Advancements in Agricultural Development, 1(2), 53–64. https://doi.org/10.37433/aad.v1i2.39
McKim, A. J., & Velez, J. V. (2016). An evaluation of the self-efficacy theory in agricultural education. Journal of Agricultural Education, 57(1), 73–90. https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2016.01073
Schunk, D. H. (2012). Social cognitive theory. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan, C. B. McCormick, G. M. Sinatra, & J. Sweller (Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology®. APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 1. Theories, constructs, and critical issues (pp. 101–123). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/13273-005
Swan, B. G., Wolf, K. J., & Cano, J. (2011). Changes in teacher self–efficacy from the student teaching experience through the third year of teaching. Journal of Agricultural Education, 52(2), 128–139. https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2011.02128
Talbert, B. A., Vaughn, R., Croom, B., & Lee, J. S. (2014). Foundations of agricultural education. Pearson-education, Inc.
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(01)00036-1
Thornton, K., Easterly, R. G., & Simpson, K.A. (2020). Curricular resource use and the relationship with teacher self-efficacy among New Mexico school-based agricultural education teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education, 61(4), 343–357. https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2020.04343
Wei, H., & Chou, C. (2020) Online learning performance and satisfaction: Do perceptions and readiness matter? Distance Education, 41(1), 48–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2020.1724768
Wolf, K. (2011). Agricultural education perceived self-efficacy: A descriptive study of beginning agricultural education teachers. Journal of Agricultural Education, 52(2), 163–176. https://doi/org/10.5032/jae.2011.02163
World Health Organization (WHO). (2021, March). R&D Blueprint and COVID-19. https://www.who.int/teams/blueprint/covid-19
Copyright (c) 2021 Debra Barry, Tre Easterly
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.