Who do you know? Zoonotic disease communication networks of livestock producers, veterinarians, human health professionals, and emergency managers
Zoonotic disease epidemics are on the rise with emerging diseases being identified that affect humans and animals alike. An understanding about communication networks of those involved in managing a zoonotic disease outbreak is necessary to develop a strong communication response in the event of a zoonotic disease outbreak. The purpose of this study was to explore the communication networks of livestock producers, veterinarians, human health professionals, and emergency managers related to zoonotic disease. In-depth interviews were conducted with 41 people within key areas of one state in an effort to understand how communication networks may be activated during a crisis. This study revealed a wide range of information sources that livestock producers, medical professionals, veterinarians, and emergency managers seek information from. The results from this study also highlight the communication gaps, such as veterinarians not communicating with livestock producers, emergency managers not communicating with medical professionals and livestock producers, and a lack of communication between medical professionals and livestock producers. It is recommended that professionals who play a key role in zoonotic disease outbreaks, such as livestock producers, veterinarians, human health professionals, and emergency managers, cultivate and maintain relationships outside their usual professional group beyond times of disease outbreaks.
Ashlock, M. A., Cartmell, D. D., & Leising, J. G. (2009). Before it hits the fan: Pre-crisis beef producer information source preferences. Journal of Applied Communications, 93(3). https://doi.org/10.4148/1051-0834.1198
Baker, L. M., McLeod- Morin, A. N., Kent, K. W, & Lindsey, A. B. (2020). No online information outbreak: A quantitative content analysis of the CDC and USDA websites for available information on zoonotic disease, Advancements in Agricultural Development, 1(1), 25-37. https://doi.org/10.37433/aad.v1i1.19
Breiner, S. J., Grau, S. A., Barnhardt, B. B., & Bryant, A. M. (2007). Veterinarians are most popular source of information utilized by cow-calf producers. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, 0(1). https://doi.org/10.4148/2378-5977.1521
Britten, N. (1995). Qualitative interviews in medical research. BMJ, 311(6999), 251-253. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.6999.251
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention One Health. (n.d.). Zoonotic diseases, https://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/basics/zoonotic-diseases.html
Chaklader, M.A. (2018). Acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children in ethnic minority communities of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh: A qualitative study, Journal of Health and Social Sciences, 3(2), 157-170. https://doaj.org/article/b526a6f335f148c5b90b37f267c0641c
Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2012). The handbook of crisis communication. Blackwell Publishing.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design (4th ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches. SAGE Publications, Inc.
Cripps, P. J. (2000). Veterinary education, zoonoses and public health: A personal perspective. Acta Tropica, 76(1), 77-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-706X(00)00094-2
Decker, D., Evensen, D., Siemer, W., Leong, K., Riley, S., Wild, M., Castle, K., Higgins, C. (2010). Understanding risk perceptions to enhance communication about human-wildlife interactions and the impacts of zoonotic disease, ILAR Journal, 51(3), 255-261. https://doi.org/10.1093/ilar.51.3.255
Gebreyes, W. A., Dupouy-Camet, J., Newport, M. J., Oliveira, C. J. B., Schlesigner, L. S., Saif, Y. M.,… King, L. J. (2014). The global One Health paradigm: Challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environmental interface in low-resource settings. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003257
Glaser, B. (1965). The constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Social Problems, 12(4), 436-445. http://doi.org/10.2307/798843
Grant, S., & Olsen, C. W. (1999). Preventing zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons: the role of physicians and veterinarians. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 159-163. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0501.990121
Hawe, P., & Ghali, L. (2008). Use of social network analysis to map the social relationships of staff and teachers at school. Health Education Research, 23(1), 62-69. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyl162
Irlbeck, E., Jennings, J. F., Meyers, C., Gibson, C., & Chambers, T. (2013). A case study of the crisis communications used in the 2009 salmonella outbreak in peanut products. Journal of Applied Communications, 97(4), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.4148/1051-0834.1125
Israel, G. D., & Wilson, K. M. (2006). Sources and channels of information used by educational program clients. Journal of Applied Communications, 90(4). https://doi.org/10.4148/1051-0834.1266
Jamshed, S. (2014). Qualitative research method-interviewing and observation. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, 5(4) 87-88. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25316987
Kahn, L. H. (2006). Confronting zoonoses, linking human and veterinary medicine. Emerging Infectious Disease, 12(4), 556-561. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.050956.
Kolich, H. N. (2014). Risk and emergency communications: How to be heard when the message counts most. Journal of Extension, 52(6). https://www.joe.org/joe/2014december/a4.php
Lederberg, J. (2002). Summary and assessment. In Burroughs, Knobler, & Lederberg (Eds.), The Emergence of Zoonotic Diseases: Understanding the Impact on Animal and Human Health Workshop Summary, (113-124). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22764391/
Mahajan, S., & Meyer, S. B. (2019). Social and structural factors that influence refugee women’s use of mental health care services in Canada: A narrative review, Journal of Health and Social Sciences, 4(3), 345-358. https://doi.org/10.19204/2019/scln2
McNulty, C., Ricketts, E. J., Fredlund, H., Uusküla, A., Town, K., Rugman, C. Tisler-Sala, A…Touboul, P. (2017). Qualitative interviews with healthcare staff in four European countries to inform adaptation of an intervention to increase chlamydia testing. BMJ Open, 7(9). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017528
Moennig, V. (2000). Introduction to classical swine fever: Virus, disease and control policy. Veterinary Microbiology, 73(2-3), 93-102. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10785320
Narrod, C., Zinsstag, J., & Tiongco, M. (2012). A One Health framework for estimating the economic costs of zoonotic diseases on society. Eco Health, 9(2), 150-162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-012-0747-9
Quinn, S., Parmer, J., Freimuth, V., Hilyard, K., Musa, D., & Kim, K. (2013). Exploring communication, trust in government, and vaccination intention later in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: Results of a national survey. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 11(2), 96-106. https://doi.org/10.1089/bsp.2012.0048
Ritchie, J., & Lewis, J. (2003). Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Riley, K., Cartmell, D., & Naile, T. (2012). Kansas beef feedlot managers’ trusted sources of information concerning an agroterrorism event. Journal of Applied Communications, 96(2). https://doi.org/10.4148/1051-0834.1152
Sell, T. K. (2017). When the next disease strikes: How to communicate (and how not to). Health Security, 15(1), 28-30. https://doi.org/10.1089/hs.2016.0100
Zinsstag, J., Schelling, E., Roth, F., Bonfoh, B., de Savigny, D., & Tanner, M. (2007). Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonosis control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 527-531. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.060381.
Copyright (c) 2020 Lauri Baker, Ashley McLeod Morin, Mariah Bausch, Angela Lindsey
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.